Variables (Javascript)

All variables in Javascript are undefined by default after declaration.

Difference Between Var, Let, and Const

Use const over let and let over var unless:

Block scoped means within a block or indentation level (starting with { and ending with }) or outside of a function. This means that one can use let outside of a function and declare a new variable with let again within a function.


const is block scoped. Short for "constant", meaning that it is a variable that once defined, cannot be redefined, changed through reassignment, redeclared, or updated. This also means one can cannot initialize a variable through const without a value. const can only be accessed within the scope they were created.

const greeting = "Hello there!";
// This can never be changed, as it is a constant.
greeting = "Hi."; // This throws an error

Reference types created with const can have their attributes updated, but cannot be updated itself.

 const greeting = {
    "brothers" = 3;

// Not accepted, since `greeting` is has already been declared and assigned a value
const greeting = {
    "sisters" = 2;

const brothers = 1; // Accepted
const brothers; // Unaccepted


let is also block scoped; let variables can be updated, but not redeclared.

let greeting = "Hello there!";
greeting = "Hi.";
// This throws an error and won't work
let greeting = "Hey hey hey";


var variables are function scoped and not a constant. Even when defined within a function, they can affect the global scope. These variables can also be redeclared and updated at any point.

As of ES2015, const and let are fully supported in modern browsers, so var is not advised.

var greeting = "Hello there!";
var greeting = "Hey bayBEE!";
//These are all acceptable

Define Multiple Variables At Once

One can use commas to const many different variables at once.

const yes = 'yes',
      no = 'no',
      hi = 'hi';

Global Declaration

Global variable declarations are made by using no keyword before the definition:

greeting = "Hi.";

Assignment as an Expression (a la Walrus Operator)

You can define a variable while running a condition on an if or a while loop. This can help remove extra lines of code or going through variables over and over. Since the innermost parentheses get resolved first, it will function normally after assignment.

let i = 0;
while (i !== 3) {

// Logs (0, 1, 2)

// Written using assignment as an expression

let i = -1;
while ((i = i + 1) < 3) { // === (i = i + 1) < 3 === i < 3

// Logs (0, 1, 2)


The JS code interpretation performed in two passes. During the first pass, the interpreter processes variable and function declarations. The second pass is the actual code execution step. The interpreter processes function expressions and undeclared variables.[7]

Hoisting Variables

The term "hoisting" is meant to represent a literal hoisting of variable and function declarations to the top of a Javascript file, where they will be declared before the file is interpreted (while this is not technically what happens, it's certainly more memorable).

Consider the following example:

var a = 1;
console.log(a + ' ' + d);
var d = 3;

In this example, because interpreters normally run from top to bottom, executing each line as they go, one would expect an error thrown at the console.log because it would not be aware of any variable named d. Because of hoisting, however, d is declared by the interpreter but not initialized with a value, so it actually logs undefined instead.

Another weird case:

var a = 1;
d = 3;
console.log(a + ' ' + d);
var d;

Since the declaration of d (var d;) is "hoisted" above the assignment (d = 3;), this actually does not throw any errors and logs 3.

Hoisting Functions

The hoisting of functions is similar to variable hoisting, in that the declaration of any named functions will be "hoisted". However, what makes functions different in this is that their definition will be hoisted as well as their declaration.

In general, you do not want to hoist any functions within the browser unless you have a good reason, since it costs a lot of extra memory for the browser. This can be avoided by using anonymous functions as opposed to named functions like below:

// Outputs: "Definition hoisted!"

// TypeError: undefined is not a function

// named function
function definitionHoisted() {
    console.log("Definition hoisted!");

// anonymous function
var definitionNotHoisted = function () {
    console.log("Definition not hoisted!");



Last modified: 202206101419