Lexical Scoping (Javascript)

Lexical Scoping defines how variable names are resolved in nested functions: inner functions contain the scope of parent functions even if the parent function has returned.

With Javascript, a new scope is created only through function definitions. Every time a new function scope is created, it will contain the scope of the parent functions, along with its own. This does not go both ways, however: the outer scope does not have access to those in the inner scope.

var content = "I'm outside";
var outermost = " and I'm still here."

var middle = function () {
  var content = "I'm in the middle";
  var inner = function () {
    var content = "I'm inside"; 
    console.log(content + outermost);
  console.log(content + outermost);

// from `inner()`: "I'm inside and I'm still here."
// from `middle()`: "I'm in the middle and I'm still here."
console.log(content + outermost);
// "I'm outside and I'm still here."


this, within a function, is bound to the object within which the function is being called. Look to the left of the calltime dot to find the binding of this. The Javascript interpreter binds this to a likely-focal object, which means it isn't always what you think it is. Assume its binding will run into trouble, so you may need to at times manually set this to the desired object.

var obj = {
  greeting: function () {
  message: "Hello world"

obj.greeting(); // => "Hello world"
// Equivalent to `window.obj.greeting()`
// `this` is bound to `obj`
// The `greeting` invocation defines `obj` as `this`

var g = obj.greeting;
g(); // => undefined
// Equivalent to `window.g()`
// `this` is bound to the *global object* (i.e., `window`)
// The `greeting` invocation defines `window` as `this`


  1. https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1047454/what-is-lexical-scope
  2. http://howtonode.org/what-is-this
  3. https://medium.com/better-programming/how-javascript-works-1706b9b66c4d

Last modified: 202212070107