Model View Controller

This design pattern is used to separate functionality, logic, and component management. MVC can feel or seem confusing because there is not one way to do it, and many different frameworks that utilize MVC do it differently from one another.


Let's say you want to look at the new cats on What usually happens is:

User->Controller  : Makes request for webpage
Controller->Model : Requests data for page
Model->Model      : Queries data from database
Model->Controller : Returns queried data
Controller->View  : Requests data as a webpage
View->View        : Formats data to webpage
View->Controller  : Returns webpage
Controller->User  : Returns user's webpage



The model is the brain of the application, responsible for getting and manipulating the data. It is often interacting with some kind of database or data in a file.

The model is often communicating with the controller, which is requesting data and/or updating the view. Sometimes the updating of the view is delegated to the model, sometimes to the controller.


This is what the user interacts with. In web development, this is usually made up of HTML and CSS.

The view is usually told what to show by the controller by being given dynamic values, usually with some kind of template engine, like Handlebars, ERV, HAML, Jinja2, Pug, etc.


The controller takes in user input and decides what to do with it. Usually the user interaction with the browser will go through some kind of router which will then give the controller a specific method to execute.

The controller acts as a middleman between the controller and the view. It takes the user input, passes it to the model which will then return some data to the controller, who then tells the view what to display to the user.

Example Frameworks Using MVC



Last modified: 202212070107