Apply, Call and Bind in Javascript

Apply, bind, and call are higher order functions that help with this.They allow you to invoke a function, which would normally be called from and on the same object, and change which object to which it will be applied.

Apply and Call

// functionName.apply(newThis, [arguments, moreArguments]);
//, arguments, moreArguments);

const numbers = [5, 6, 2, 3, 7];
const max = Math.max.apply(null, numbers);
console.log(max); // expected output: 7

const min = Math.min.apply(null, numbers);
console.log(min); // expected output: 2

While the syntax of apply and call are almost identical, the fundamental difference is that apply accepts an array of arguments, and call accepts a comma-separated argument list.


The bind() method returns a new function that, when called, has its this keyword set to the provided value, with a given sequence of arguments preceding any provided when the new function is called.

var num = 2;
var x = { num: 6 };

var addTwo = function () {
  return this.num + 2;

var addTwoToX = addTwo.bind(x);

addTwo();    // returns 4 since this.num = 2
addTwoToX(); // returns 8 since this.num = 6


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Last modified: 202401040446